Total number of international publications (including publ in press) (period 2002-2015): 66
Number of publications authored as first name: 27
Number of publications authored as last name: 4
Total impact factor (SCI Journal Citation Reports 2013) = 182,6
H index Scopus = 25
Mean IF from 61 publications: 3,0
The research activity of Luigi Vezzulli is mainly focused on the study of the biology and ecology of pathogenic bacteria belonging to the genus Vibrio. Research conducted in this field explored the mechanisms of persistence and survival strategies of Vibrio bacteria in the aquatic environment. Studies have shown that zooplankton and other aquatic organisms represent important environmental reservoirs and/or hosts of V. cholerae and other Vibrio species. In particular, research on molecular determinants that are responsible for V. cholerae interaction with environmental substrates highlighted the role of outer membrane proteins in mediating V. cholerae adhesion to chitin containing substrates. Special attention was given to N-acetyl glucosamine-binding protein A (GbpA) of V. cholerae which is involved in colonization of both human intestinal cells and environmental chitin surfaces via the same binding specificity. The gbpA gene is located in a non mobile region of chromosome II and was found ubiquitously in V. cholerae. The gene is also present in V. vulnificus and V. parahamolyticus with conserved and species specific hypervariable regions. These properties make gbpA a good phylogenetic marker for human pathogenic Vibrio species and allowed the development of new molecular protocols for detection and quantification of V. cholerae in complex environmental matrices (including historical formalin-fixed environmental samples). Studies on GbpA showed that this ligand plays an important role in V. cholerae interaction with its main environmental reservoirs in coastal water (e.g. copepods). Moreover, due to the upregulation exerted by temperature on its expression, GbpA is likely to contribute to the enhanced V. cholerae colonization capability of zooplankton organisms at high environmental temperature, thus partially explaining the role of ocean warming in promoting the spread of these bacteria in the aquatic environment. Ongoing research in this field is devoted to study possible use of GbpA as a component of vaccine against V cholerae in collaboration with the University of Maryland (USA) and the Centre of Biotechnology of the University of Maputo (Mozambique).
In the field of non-human diseases research activity was devoted to study Vibrio species that cause diseases in marine animals (e.g. corals and bivalves). Studies were conducted to assess the role of thermodependant Vibrio pathogens in mass mortality events of benthic invertebrates in the NW Mediterranean Sea which are related to sea surface temperature anomalies registered during the recent years. Such studies resulted in the identification of the TAV24 Vibrio strain, later identified as V. coralliilyticus, which was demonstrated to trigger mass mortality events of the purple gorgonian Paramuricea clavata, a key structuring species of the coralligenous assemblages in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Ongoing activity in this field is carried out in collaboration with the Australian Institute of Marine Sciences (AIMS) aimed at the genotypic and phenotypic characterization of the TAV24 strain and the assessment of involved virulence factors using transposon and site-specific mutagenesis. In the field of bivalve diseases ongoing activity in collaboration with IFREMER (France) and other European Institutes (in the frame of European projects FP7-BIVALIFE and Horizon 2020-VIVALDI) is focused on the study of the biology and ecology of Vibrio splendidus and Vibrio aestuarianus which are involved in abnormal mortality events of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas in the Atlantic ocean. Particular focus was given to the study of V. aestuarianus and V. spleniduds interaction with bivalve hemocytes and other bivalve defense mechanisms. Major findings in this field resulted in the identification of a mussel serum opsonin (matching the protein precursor of Mytilus edulis extrapallial protein -EP) directed towards D-mannose binding bacterial ligands that were shown to mediate V. aestuarianus 01/032 interactions with M. galloprovincialis haemocytes. In the presence of M. galloprovincialis EP protein (MgEP), C. gigas haemocytes killed V. aestuarianus 01/032 almost as efficiently as mussel phagocytes. These findings suggest that the different sensitivity of 01/032 strain to the antibacterial activity of oyster and mussel haemolymph might partly depend on the fact that C. gigas serum lacks MgEP-like opsonins.
In the field of Vibrio ecology research was also conducted to study the effects of ocean warming on natural Vibrio populations through the development of a novel approach which is based on the molecular analysis of formalin-fixed samples from the historical Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) archive. The CPR archive, which is based at the Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science (SAHFOS) in Plymouth (UK), is one of the longest and most geographically extensive collection of marine plankton samples in the world. For the first time prokaryotic DNA was recovered from CPR samples that had been stored for up to ~50 years in a formalin-fixed format. Protocols were developed for the application of microbiological molecular techniques (e.g. PCR-based and Next Generation Sequencing techniques) on archived CPR samples. Using such protocols we were able to demonstrate that there was an increase in the numbers of vibrios over the past half century, probably a two or threefold increase, correlated with the increase in climate temperature, and then correlated with outbreaks of vibrio infections that have been recorded in the medical records. These findings provide support for the view that global warming is having a strong impact on the composition of marine prokaryotic communities with potential important implications for human and animal health.
Early research of Luigi Vezzulli was focused on the study of microbial ecology and bioremediation of organic-rich marine ecosystems. In 2011 Luigi Vezzulli developed the WinCPR software, a gridded database of plankton abundance in the North Sea compiled from monthly sampling by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) Survey (WinCPR is freely available at http://cpr.cscan.org/).
Chapter in International books
● James D. Oliver, Carla Pruzzo, Luigi Vezzulli, James B. Kaper" Vibrio Species," Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 4th Ed. Edited by M. P. Doyle and R. L. Buchanan © 2013 ASM Press, Washington, D.C. doi:10.1128/9781555818463.ch16
● Ingrid Brettar, Manfred G. Höfle, Carla Pruzzo, Luigi Vezzulli. Climate Change Effects on Planktonic Bacterial Communities in the Ocean –From Structure and Function to Long-term and Large-scale Observations, “Climate Change and Microbial Ecology: Current Research and Future Trends” Ed. Edited by Jürgen Marxsen Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany, © 2015 Caister Academic Press, Norfolk, UK
● Luigi Vezzulli, William H. Wilson, Carla Pruzzo (2017). Investigating the macroecology of emerging Vibrio pathogens in the ocean using the Continuous Plankton Recorder technology. In CIESM 2017. Searching for Bacterial Pathogens in the Digital Ocean. CIESM Workshop Monograph n 49 [F. Briand, ed.], 158 p., CIESM Publisher, Monaco.
Ongoing International collaboration
● Rita R. Colwell Maryland Pathogen Research Institute and 3Center of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
● Anwar Huq. University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
● Ingrid Brettar, Manfred Höefle, Carlos A. Guzman, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Dept. Vaccinology and Applied Microbiology, Braunschweig, Germany
● Philip Chris Reid. Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science (SAHFOS), Plymouth, UK
● David G. Bourne, Australian Institute of Marine Science Townsville (Australia)
● Monique Pommepuy, Dominique Hervio. Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER) Laboratoire Microbiologie, Brest France
● Tristan Renault. Institut Français de Recherche pour l'Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), Laboratoire de Génétique et Pathologie (LGP), Avenue de Mus de Loup, 17390 La Tremblade, France.
● Ibrahim Banat, School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulster, UK
● Micha Ilan, Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University, Israel
● Mauro Colombo, Centre of Biotechnology, University Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique
Keynote/invited speaker at conferences and symposia
● 2005: “Integrated assessment of recently identified risk factors for food safety improvement in mussel farming” Euro-Mediterranean meetings-the innovation for an economic and sustainable development in the Mediterranean Sea, 3-4 October 2005, Izmir, Turkey.
● 2009: “Interazioni microbiche nell’ambiente marino: aspetti emergenti”. 37° Congresso Nazionale della Società Italiana di Microbiologia, 11-14 October 2009, Turin, Italy
● 2011: “Interactions between vibrios and copepods: effects on pathogen persistence, survival and transmission to humans” 11th International Conference on Copepoda, 10-15 July 2011, Merida (Yucatan), Mexico
● 2012: “Effect of global warming on Vibrio spp. in the temperate marine environment” International Symposium "Pathogenic Vibrio spp. in Northern European Waters", 31 May-1 June 2012, Koblenz, Germany
● 2013: “Dall’ambiente all’uomo: Evoluzione e Selezione di caratteristiche di virulenza In Vibrio cholerae”, 41° Congresso Nazionale della Società Italiana di Microbiologia, 13-16 October 2013, Riccione, Italy
● 2014: “Macroecology of vibrios in the temperate northern hemisphere linked to ocean warming”, Vibrio 2014 conference, 1-4 April 2014, Edinburgh (UK)
● 2015: “Vibrio and Climate change: what's relevant for Europe?” Vibrio European workshop, 11-12 March 2015, Paris, France
● 2015: “Ocean warming and spread of pathogenic vibrio in the aquatic environment” Convegno SIMGBM, 23-26 September 2015, Ravenna, Italy
● 2017: “Ecology and spread of human pathogenic Vibrio in the marine environment and link with climate change”, 45° Congresso Nazionale della Società Italiana di Microbiologia, 27-30 September 2017, Genova, Italy
● 2017: “Ocean warming and spread of pathogenic vibrios in the aquatic environment”, The impact of climate change on marine ecosystems workshop held at the Monaco Yacht club, 12-14 October 2017, Principality of Monaco.
Invited seminars at National and International Institutions
● 2013: “Ecology of Vibrios in the light of Climate Change” seminary at the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), 4st June 2013, Braunschweig, Germany
● 2013: “Ecology of Vibrios in the light of Climate Change” seminary at the Marine Biological Association and SAHFOS, 21st February 2013, Plymouth, UK
● 2014: “Vibrios and Climate Change”, seminary at CNR-ISMAR, 25 March 2014, Venice, Italy
● 2014: “Aquatic microbes and Human health in the light of Climate change: the "Vibrio" case study” seminary at EPFL, 25 November 2014, Lausanne, Switzerland
● 2015: “Vibrio and CPR: an update!” seminary at the Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, 24st February 2015, Plymouth, UK
Membership in Organizing Committee of National/International conferences and symposia
● 2013: member of the local Organizing Committee of the First EMBO Conference on Aquatic Microbial Ecology (SAME13), 8-13 September 2013, Stresa, Italy
Participation to conference and symposium
(+) Participation in form of oral presentation
(++) Participation in form of invited-keynote oral presentation
● Ecosystem Effects of Fishing, ICES/SCOR Symposium, 15-19 March 1999, Montpellier, France
● (+) Congresso Nazionale Associazione Italiana di Oceanologia e Limnologia, September 2000, Garda, Italy
● 2° Convegno Nazionale delle Scienze del Mare, 22-25 November 2000, Genoa, Italy
● (+) 36th Congress Comission Internationale Pour l’Exploration Scientifique de la Mer Mediterranèe (CIESM), 24-28 September 2001, Monte Carlo
● Congress European Federation of Marine Science and Technology societies (EFMS), 27-29 September 2002, Athens, Greece
● Aquaculture Europe 2002 Conference, 16-19 October, Trieste, Italy
● 8th Symposium on Aquatic Microbial Ecology. 25-30 October 2002, Taormina, Italy
● Southern European Coastal Lagoons: the influence of river basin-coastal zone interactions international conference, 10-12 November 2003, Ferrara, Italy
● Royal Society's Summer Science Exhibition, 5-8 July 2004, London, England
● XV Congresso Nazionale della Società Italiana di Ecologia (SITE), 12-14 September 2005, Turin, Italy
● VII Congresso Annuale della Federazione Italiana delle Scienze della Vita (FISV), 22-25 September 2005, Riva del Garda, Italy
● (+) Euro-Mediterranean meetings-the innovation for an economic and sustainable development in the Mediterranean Sea, 3-4 October 2005, Izmir, Turkey
● (+) Second International Symposium on research and management of eutrophication in coastal ecosystems, 20-23 June 2006, Nyborg, Denmark
● Vibrio 2010 international symposium, 28 November-1 December 2007, Paris, France
● (+) X Congresso Annuale della Federazione Italiana delle Scienze della Vita (FISV), 24-27 September 2008, Riva del Garda, Italy
● (+) XVIII Congresso Nazionale della Società Italiana di Ecologia (SITE), 1-3 September 2008, Parma, Italy
● (++) 37° Congresso Nazionale della Società Italiana di Microbiologia, 11-14 October 2009, Turin, Italy
● Vibrio 2009 International Symposium, 4-6 November 2009, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
● (+) Bertinoro meeting di Microbiologia Ambientale, 21-22 May 2010, Bertinoro, Italy
● (+) XX Congresso Nazionale della Società Italiana di Ecologia (SITE), 27-30 September 2010, Roma, Italy
● Vibrio in the Environment 2010 International Symposium, 7-12 November 2010, Biloxi (Mississippi), USA
● Preventing the adverse health impacts of climate change: What public health interventions really work and what do not? 16-17 June 2011, ECDC, Stockholm, Sweden
● (++) 11th International Conference on Copepoda, 10-15 July 2011, Merida (Yucatan), Mexico
● Convegno SIMGBM, 21-23 September 2011, Pisa, Italy
● (++) International Symposium "Pathogenic Vibrio spp. in Northern European Waters", 31 May-1 June 2012, Koblenz, Germany
● Convegno FISV, 24-27 September 2012, Pisa, Italy
● (+) 40° Congresso Nazionale della Società Italiana di Microbiologia, 7-10 October 2012, Riccione, Italy
● (+) AGU Fall Meeting 2012, 3-7 December 2012, San Francisco, USA
● First EMBO Conference on Aquatic Microbial Ecology (SAME13), 8-13 September 2013, Stresa, Italy
● (+) Convegno SIMGBM, 8-21 September 2013, Ischia, Italy
● (++) 41° Congresso Nazionale della Società Italiana di Microbiologia, 13-16 October 2013, Riccione, Italy
● (++) Vibrio 2014 International Symposium, 1-4 April 2014, Edinburgh, UK
● (++) Vibrio European workshop, 11-12 March 2015, Paris, France
● (++) Convegno SIMGBM, 23-26 September 2015, Ravenna, Italy
● (+) 1° Congresso Nazionale Congiunto SITE - UZI - SIB, 30 August-2 September 2016, Milan, Italy
● (++) 45° Congresso Nazionale della Società Italiana di Microbiologia, 27-30 September 2017, Genova, Italy
● (++) The impact of climate change on marine ecosystems workshop held at the Monaco Yacht club, 12-14 October 2017, Principality of Monaco.
Participation to national and international courses
● 2003: Participation to the course “Detecting multivariate changes in biological assemblages: experimental design and data analysis”, Prof. M.J. Anderson (University of Auckland, New Zealand), Prof. L. Benedetti-Cecchi (University of Pisa, Italy), Prof. K.R. Clarke and P. Somerfield (Plymouth Marine Laboratory, UK), from 26 May to 6 June, University of Lecce (Italy).
● 2009: Participation to the course “Advanced bioinformatics”, 5-6 October 2009, Fondazione per le Biotecnologie (www.fobiotech.org), Torino (Italy)
● 2010: Participation to the course “Mini Corso 454 New Generation Sequencing La tecnologia, le applicazioni, i vantaggi”. 13 May 2012, University of Genoa (Italy).
Principal Investigator of National Research Projects
● 2006 ATENEO DI GENOVA (Principal investigator): "Mechanism of horizontal gene transfer of Vibrio spp in mussels" funded by the University of Genoa (euro 8,077) (2006).
● 2011 ATENEO DI GENOVA (Principal investigator): "Climate and infectious disease: effects of ocean warming on the global ecology and biogeography of Vibrio pathogens" funded by "University of Genoa" Principal investigator: Luigi Vezzulli (euro 7,011).
Principal Investigator of European Research Projects
● 2013-2017 SEVENTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME (Coordinator of research unit): "Protecting the health of Europeans by improving methods for the detection of pathogens in drinking water and water used in food preparation (AQUAVALENS)" funded by "European FP7 topic-KBBE-2012-6", Principal investigator: Paul Hunter (University of East Anglia, England), coordinator of the research unit of Univ. Genoa since 2015 onward: Luigi Vezzulli (euro 250,511).
Principal Investigator of other International Research Projects
● 2012-2014 ITALIAN MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS (Principal investigator): ""The mesophotic zone: Conservation tool and new drugs frontier" funded by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs within the the Joint Italian-Israeli R&D programme (euro 20,000).
● 2014-2015 ROYAL SOCIETY (UK) (Co-Principal investigator) : "Global Scale Macroecology of Human Vibrio pathogens (GLOBALVIBRIO)" funded by the Royal Society (UK) within the International Exchanges Scheme - 2013/R2 (GBP 12,000) (2014:2015).
● 2018 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY (USA) (Principal investigator): "Macroecology of Vibrio cholerae in Lake Tanganyika". funded by "National Geographic Society (USA)" (USD 30,000).
Participation to national research projects
●2005-2008 ITALIAN MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY AND RESEARCH (Participant) “ Innovative model for integrated management of marine fish farm to improve food safety and environmental quality (ALLITTIMA)" funded by "Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research" Programme "Fondo Integrativo Speciale per la Ricerca (FISR)", Principal investigator: Biancamaria Poli, coordinator of the research unit: Mauro Fabiano (euro 197,115)
● 2008 ATENEO DI GENOVA (Participant): "Mass mortality events of benthic invertebrates in the Mediterranean Sea: environmental stress and/or microbial infections? funded by "University of Genoa", Principal investigator: Carlo Cerrano (euro 6,000).
● 2010-2012 ITALIAN MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY AND RESEARCH (Participant): "Ruolo dell'ambiente marino nella selezione di batteri patogeni per l'uomo:il caso dell'adesina p53 di Vibrio cholerae" funded by "Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research" Programme PRIN 2008, Principal investigator: Lleo' Fernandez Maria Del Mar, coordinator of the research unit: Carla Pruzzo (euro 52,527).
● 2013-2014 ITALIAN MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY AND RESEARCH (Participant) "Integrate Research on Antarctic Silverfish Ecology in the Ross sea" funded by "Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research" Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide, Call 2013, Principal investigator: Marino Vacchi (ISMAR-CNR).
● 2015-2018 ITALIAN MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, UNIVERSITY AND RESEARCH (Participant) “Discovery of novel antimicrobial compounds from unexplored marine environments as a source of innovative antimicrobial approaches to address the global threat of antibiotic resistance” funded by "Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research" Programma SIR, Call 2014, Principal investigator: Filomena De Luca (University of Siena), (euro 344,036)
Participation to European research projects
● 2010-2013 SEVENTH FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME (Participant): "Controlling of infectious diseases in oysters and mussels in Europe (BIVALIFE)" funded by "European FP7-topic KBBE. 2010.1.2-08", Principal investigator: Tristan Reanault (IFREMER France), coordinator of the research unit: Carla Pruzzo (euro 201,000).
● 2016-2019 HORIZON 2020 (Participant): "Preventing and mitigating farmed bivalve diseases (VIVALDI)" funded by "European Horizon 2020 Call: H2020 — H2020-SFS-2015-2, Principal investigator: Isabelle Arzul (IFREMER, France), coordinator of the research unit: Carla Pruzzo (euro 199,230).
Participation to other international research projects
● 2011 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY (USA) (Participant): "The exploration of the Mediterranean mesophotic zone: a new frontier for biodiversity discovery". funded by "National Geographic Society (USA)" Principal investigator: Carlo Cerrano (USD 20,000).
Research and Awards in International institutes
2005: Honorary Fellow at the Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, Plymouth, UK
Dr Luigi Vezzulli was elected as Honorary Fellow by the Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science at the 28th Council Meeting in April 2005. The award was given in recognition of his work with the Foundation on WinCPR, a gridded database of plankton abundance in the North Sea compiled from monthly sampling by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) Survey (WinCPR is freely available at http://cpr.cscan.org/). WinCPR has been used by researchers and research institutes worldwide and has a wide range of potential applications including marine ecology, microbial oceanography, marine management, mathematics, modelling and statistical analysis. Recently WinCPR have been employed by Vezzulli et al (ISMEJ 2012, vol 6: pp 21-30) to investigate the relationship between Vibrio and plankton over a multidecadal scale showing that the genus Vibrio, including the human pathogen V. cholerae, has increased in prevalence in the last half a century in the coastal waters of the southern North Sea and that this increase is correlated significantly, during the same period, with warming sea surface temperature. Supportive documentation regarding Luigi Vezzulli “Honorary Fellowship” award are attached to this application in scanned PDF format
2011: Associated Researcher at the Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, Plymouth, UK
In 2011 Dr Vezzulli was awarded a SAHFOS Associated Researcher bursary in recognition of his work with the Foundation on ‘Global Scale Macroecology of Vibrio pathogens (GLOBALVIBRIO)’.This activity is focused on the global emerging threats to human health posed by environmental Vibrio pathogens, who are causing serious public-health concerns in many areas throughout the world, including Europe, and whose occurrence is expected to increase in the near future under the influence of climate and human-driven environmental changes. The general objective of this research activity is to study the macroecology of human pathogenic vibrios in the global aquatic environment using the CPR technology, including the relationship with plankton, which represents one of the main environmental reservoir for these bacteria. This study will produce new knowledge in the frame of the current emerging issue concerning the worldwide spread of outbreaks and epidemics of human illness associated to vibrios.
2013: FEMS Invited Speaker Meeting Grant (ISMG) 2013
to attend the FEMS Meeting 2014-03: VIBRIO 2014 International Symposium and present a key-note lecture: "Global macroecology of Vibrio pathogens”
Participation in private companies
Luigi Vezzulli is a co-founder of the MICAMO srl (Via Greto di Cornigliano 6R - 16152 Genova Italy, P.IVA 02050300991, http://www.micamo.com). MICAMO (Microbiologia Ambientale e Molecolare) is a University SPIN-OFF founded in 2011 working in the biotechnological sector. MICAMO focus its activity in the application and development of Innovative technology for the detection and control of microbial pathogens in water and food. Supportive documentation regarding Luigi Vezzulli contribution in MICAMO srl is attached to this application in scanned PDF format
Participation as member of editorial board in scientific Journals
Since February 2014 member of the editorial board of "Frontiers in Environmental Health"
Scientific reviewer for the following journals
● Nature Climate Change
● ISME Journal
● Environmental Microbiology and Environmental Microbiology report
● Microbial Ecology
● Journal of Applied Microbiology
● Annals of Microbiology
● Water Research
● Marine Pollution Bulletin
● Continental Shelf Research
● Journal of Environmental Management
● Deep-Sea Research Part II
● Process Biochemistry
● Journal of Plankton Research
● Water SA
● Italian Society of General Microbiology (S.I.M.G.B.M.)
● Italian Society of Microbiology (S.I.M)
● Italian Society of Ecology (S.It.E.)
● Centro di Biologia Marina del Mar Ligure (BIOLMAR)
No peer-review research contract
● “Detection, isolation and genotyping of Legionella pneomophila serogroup 1 in water” funded by Studio Tecnico Lanteri (Sanremo) (euro 2,170)(2010). Principal investigator: Luigi Vezzulli
Development of scientific software
SAHFOS WinCPR v.1.1
Vezzulli L., Dowland PS, Reid PC, Hylton EK (2007). Gridded database browser of North Sea plankton, Version 1.1: fifty four years (1948-2001) of monthly plankton abundance from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey. Sir Alister Hardy Foundation, Plymouth, UK. At URL: http://cpr.cscan.org/
Vezzulli L, Dowland PS, Reid PC, Hylton EK (2007). Gridded database browser of North Sea plankton, Version 1.1: fifty four years (1948-2001) of monthly plankton abundance from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey [CD-ROM]. Sir Alister Hardy Foundation, Plymouth, UK.